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Rules and Regulation


1. The referees are in absolute control of the game and shall have equal powers to declare fouls and penalties. Differences of opinion of the referees shall not serve as a basis for protest or appeal.

2. The committee or organisation appointing the referees shall have power to designate the side of the pool from which each referee shall officiate. Referees shall change sides of the pool before the start of any period when the teams do not change ends.

3. At the start of the game and of each period, the referees will position themselves on the respective five (5) metre line. The starting signal shall be given by the referee on the same side as the official table.

4. After a goal, the signal to restart shall be given by the referee who was controlling the attacking situation when the goal was scored. Before restarting, the referees shall ensure that any substitutions have been completed.

5. Each referee shall have the power to declare fouls in any part of the field of play but each referee shall give their primary attention to the offensive situation attacking the goal to their right. The referee not controlling the attacking situation (the defensive referee) shall maintain a position no closer to the goal being attacked than that player of the attacking team furthest back from the goal.

6. When awarding a free throw, goal throw or corner throw, the referee making the decision shall blow the whistle and both referees shall indicate the direction of the attack, to enable players in different parts of the pool to see quickly which team has been awarded the throw. The referee making the decision shall point to where the throw is to be taken if the ball is not at that position. Referees shall use the signals set out in Appendix B to indicate the nature of the fouls which they are penalising.

7. If, in the referee’s opinion, a player persists in playing in an unsporting manner or engages in simulation, the referee shall issue a yellow card to the offending player. Should the action continue, the referee will issue the player with a red card visible to both the field of play and the table as this is deemed to be misconduct. The referee then signals the excluded player’s cap number to the table.

8. The signal for a penalty throw to be taken shall be made by the attacking referee, except that a player who wishes to take the throw with the left hand may request the defensive referee to make the signal.

9. When simultaneous free throws are awarded by both referees to the same team, the award shall go to the player awarded the throw by the attacking referee.

10. When simultaneous awards are made for ordinary fouls but for opposing teams, the award shall be a neutral throw, to be taken by the attacking referee.

11. When simultaneous awards are made by both referees and one is for an ordinary foul and the other is for an exclusion foul or penalty foul, the exclusion foul or penalty foul award shall be applied.

12. When players of both teams commit an exclusion foul simultaneously during play, the referees shall call the ball from the water and make sure both teams and the secretaries know who is excluded. The 30 second possession clock is not reset and play is restarted with a free throw to the team which had possession of the ball. If neither team had possession when the simultaneous exclusions were called, the 30 second possession clock is reset and play shall be restarted with a neutral throw.

13. In the event of simultaneous awards of penalty throws to both teams, the first throw shall be taken by the team last in possession of the ball. After the second penalty throw has been taken, the game will restart with the team which had possession of the ball receiving a free throw at on or behind the half distance line.