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Rules and Regulation

DEFINITIONS APPLICABLE TO DOPING CONTROL RULES

ADAMS: The Anti-Doping Administration and Management System is a Web-based database management tool for data entry, storage, sharing, and reporting designed to assist stakeholders and WADA in their anti-doping operations in conjunction with data protection legislation.
Administration: Providing, supplying, supervising, facilitating, or otherwise participating in the Use or Attempted Use by another Person of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method. However, this definition shall not include the actions of bona fide medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in Out-of-Competition Testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate that such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.
Adverse Analytical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved entity that, consistent with the International Standard for Laboratories and related Technical Documents, identifies in a Sample the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the Use of a Prohibited Method.
Adverse Passport Finding: A report resulting from the process set forth in the applicable Technical Document or Guideline which concludes that the analytical results reviewed are inconsistent with a normal physiological condition or known pathology and compatible with the Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.
Anti-Doping Organization: A Signatory to the Code that is responsible for adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the Doping Control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, other Major Event Organisations that conduct Testing at their Events/Competitions, WADA, International Federations, and National Anti-Doping Organisations.
Athlete: Any Person who competes in sport at the international level (as defined by each International Federation), or the national level (as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization). An Anti-Doping Organization has discretion to apply anti-doping rules to an Athlete who is neither an International-Level Athlete nor a National-Level Athlete, and thus to bring them within the definition of “Athlete.” In relation to Athletes who are neither International-Level nor National-Level Athletes, an Anti-Doping Organization may elect to: conduct limited Testing or no Testing at all; analyze Samples for less than the full menu of Prohibited Substances; require limited or no whereabouts information; or not require advance TUEs. However, if an Article 2.1, 2.3 or Article 2.5 anti-doping rule violation is committed by any Athlete over whom an Anti-Doping Organization has authority who competes below the international or national level, then the Consequences set forth in the Code (except Article 14.3.2) must be applied. For purposes of Article 2.8 and Article 2.9 and for purposes of anti-doping information and education, any Person who competes in sport under the authority of any Signatory, government, or other sports organization accepting the Code is an Athlete.

[Comment: This definition makes it clear that all International- and National-Level Athletes are subject to the anti-doping rules of the Code, with the precise definitions of international- and national -level sport to be set forth in the anti-doping rules of the International Federations and National Anti-Doping Organizations, respectively. The definition also allows each National Anti-Doping Organization, if it chooses to do so, to expand its anti-doping program beyond International- or National-Level Athletes to competitors at lower levels of Competition or to individuals who engage in fitness activities but do not compete at all. Thus, a National Anti-Doping Organization could, for example, elect to test recreational-level competitors but not require advance TUEs. But an anti-doping rule violation involving an Adverse Analytical Finding or Tampering results in all of the Consequences provided for in the Code (with the exception of Article 14.3.2). The decision on whether Consequences apply to recreational-level Athletes who engage in fitness activities but never compete is left to the National Anti-Doping Organization. In the same manner, a Major Event Organization holding an Event only for masters-level competitors could elect to test the competitors but not analyze Samples for the full menu of Prohibited Substances. Competitors at all levels of Competition should receive the benefit of anti-doping information and education.]
Athlete Biological Passport: The program and methods of gathering and collating data as described in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and International Standard for Laboratories.
Athlete Support Personnel: Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical, paramedical personnel, parent or any other Person working with, treating or assisting an Athlete participating in or preparing for sports Competition.
Attempt: Purposely engaging in conduct that constitutes a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in the commission of an anti-doping rule violation. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on an Attempt to commit a violation if the Person renounces the Attempt prior to it being discovered by a third party not involved in the Attempt.
Atypical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory which requires further investigation as provided by the International Standard for Laboratories or related Technical Documents prior to the determination of an Adverse Analytical Finding.
Atypical Passport Finding: A report described as an Atypical Passport Finding as described in the applicable International Standards.
CAS: The Court of Arbitration for Sport.
Code: The World Anti-Doping Code.
Competition: A series of individual Events conducted together under one ruling body (e.g. FINA World Championships). Also, the act of participating in an Event.(This definition has been changed from the Code definition in order to be consistent with other FINA Rules. Under FINA Rules, a “Competition” is the same as an “Event” under the Code.)
Competition Period: The time between the beginning of the opening ceremonies and the end of the closing ceremonies for a Competition.

Competition Venue / Event Venue: Those venues so designated by the ruling body for the Competition / Event.
Consequences of Anti-Doping Rules Violations (“Consequences”): An Athlete’s or other Person’s violation of an anti-doping rule may result in one or more of the following: (a) Disqualification means the Athlete’s results in a particular Competition or Event are invalidated, with all resulting consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes; (b) Ineligibility means the Athlete or other Person is barred on account of anti-doping rule violation for a specified period of time from participating in any Event, Competition or other activity or funding as provided in DC 10.12.1; and (c) Provisional Suspension means the Athlete or other Person is barred temporarily from participating in any Event, Competition or activity prior to the final decision at a hearing conducted under DC 8; (d) Financial Consequences means a CAS cost award or a financial sanction imposed for an anti-doping rule violation or to recover costs associated with an anti-doping rule violation; and (e) Public Disclosure or Reporting means the disclosure of information related to anti-doping rule violations as provided in DC 14. Teams in Team Sports may also be subject to Consequences as provided in DC 11.
Contaminated Product: A product that contains a Prohibited Substance that is not disclosed on the product label or in information available in a reasonable Internet search.
Disqualification: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rules Violations above.
Doping Control: All steps and processes from test distribution planning through to ultimate disposition of any appeal including all steps and processes in between such as provision of whereabouts information, Sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis, therapeutic use exemptions, results management, and hearings.
DCRB: Doping Control Review Board.
Event: A single race, match, game or singular sport contest.(This definition has been changed from the Code definition in order to be consistent with other FINA Rules. Under FINA Rules, an “Event” is the same as a “Competition” under the Code.)
Fault: Fault is any breach of duty or any lack of care appropriate to a particular situation. Factors to be taken into consideration in assessing an Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault include, for example, the Athlete’s or other Person’s experience, whether the Athlete or other Person is a Minor, special considerations such as disability, the degree of risk that should have been perceived by the Athlete and the level of care and investigation exercised by the Athlete in relation to what should have been the perceived level of risk. In assessing the Athlete’s or other Person’s degree of Fault, the circumstances considered must be specific and relevant to explain the Athlete’s or other Person’s departure from the expected standard of behavior. Thus, for example, the fact that an Athlete would lose the opportunity to earn large sums of money during a period of Ineligibility, or the fact that the Athlete only has a short time left in his or her career, or the timing of the sporting calendar, would not be relevant factors to be considered in reducing the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.5.1 or 10.5.2.
[Comment: The criteria for assessing an Athlete’s degree of Fault is the same under all Articles where Fault is to be considered. However, under DC 10.5.2, no reduction of sanction is appropriate unless, when the degree of Fault is assessed, the conclusion is that No Significant Fault or Negligence on the part of the Athlete or other Person was involved.]

In-Competition: For purposes of differentiating between In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing, an In-Competition test is a test where an Athlete is selected for Testing in connection with a specific Competition, which shall start with the beginning of opening ceremonies and conclude with the end of the closing ceremonies. Where an Athlete is not competing in the context of a Competition, In-Competition means the period commencing twelve hours before an Event in which the Athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of such Event and the Sample collection process related to such Event.
Independent Observer Program: A team of observers, under the supervision of WADA, who observe and may provide guidance on the Doping Control process at certain competitions and report on their observations.
Individual Sport: Any sport that is not a Team Sport.
Ineligibility: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rules Violations above.
International Competition: A Competition where the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, FINA, a Major Event Organization, or another international sport organization is the ruling body for the Competition or appoints the technical officials for the Competition.
International-Level Athlete: An Athlete included in the FINA Registered Testing Pool or an Athlete who is not included in the FINA Registered Testing Pool during his or her participation in a FINA Competition/ Event.
International Standard: A standard adopted by WADA in support of the Code. Compliance with an International Standard (as opposed to another alternative standard, practice or procedure) shall be sufficient to conclude that the procedures addressed by the International Standard were performed properly. International Standards shall include any Technical Documents issued pursuant to the International Standard.
Major Event Organizations: The continental associations of National Olympic Committees and other international multi-sport organizations that function as the ruling body for any continental, regional or other International Competition.
Marker: A compound, group of compounds or biological variable(s) that indicates the Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.
Member Federation: Means the national federations affiliated to FINA in a country or a sport country recognized by FINA in accordance with C 7, C 8 and C 9. In countries where all of some anti-doping responsibilities have been delegated or assigned to a National Anti-Doping Organisation or Regional Anti-Doping Organisation, references in theses Anti-Doping Rules to the Member Federation shall apply, as applicable, to the Member Federation’s National Anti-Doping Organisation or Regional Anti-Doping Organisation.
Metabolite: Any substance produced by a biotransformation process.
Minor: A natural Person who has not reached the age of eighteen years.
National Anti-Doping Organization: The entity(ies) designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement anti-doping rules, direct the collection of Samples, the management of test results, and the conduct of hearings

at the national level. If this designation has not been made by the competent public authority(ies), the entity shall be the country’s National Olympic Committee or its designee.
National Competition: A sport Competition involving International- or National-Level Athletes that is not an International Competition.
National-Level Athlete: Athletes who participate in sport at the national level, as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.
National Olympic Committee: The organization recognized by the International Olympic Committee. The term National Olympic Committee shall also include the National Sport Confederation in those countries where the National Sport Confederation assumes typical National Olympic Committee responsibilities in the anti-doping area.
No Fault or Negligence: The Athlete or other Person’s establishing that he or she did not know or suspect, and could not reasonably have known or suspected even with the exercise of utmost caution, that he or she had Used or been administered the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or otherwise violated an anti-doping rule. Except in the case of a Minor, for any violation of DC 2.1, the Athlete must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered his or her system.
No Significant Fault or Negligence: The Athlete or other Person’s establishing that his or her Fault or Negligence, when viewed in the totality of the circumstances and taking into account the criteria for No Fault or Negligence, was not significant in relationship to the anti-doping rule violation. Except in the case of a Minor, for any violation of DC 2.1, the Athlete must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered his or her system.
[Comment: For Cannabinoids, an Athlete may establish No Significant Fault or Negligence by clearly demonstrating that the context of the Use was unrelated to sport performance.]
Out-of-Competition: Any period which is not In-Competition.
Participant: Any Athlete or Athlete Support Personnel.
Person: A natural Person or an organization or other entity.
Possession: The actual, physical Possession, or the constructive Possession (which shall be found only if the Person has exclusive control or intends to exercise control over the Prohibited Substance/Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance/Method exists); provided, however, that if the Person does not have exclusive control over the Prohibited Substance/Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance/Method exists, constructive Possession shall only be found if the Person knew about the presence of the Prohibited Substance/Method and intended to exercise control over it. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on Possession if, prior to receiving notification of any kind that the Person has committed an anti-doping rule violation, the Person has taken concrete action demonstrating that the Person never intended to have Possession and has renounced Possession by explicitly declaring it to an Anti-Doping Organization. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this definition, the purchase (including by any electronic or other means) of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method constitutes Possession by the Person who makes the purchase.

[Comment: Under this definition, steroids found in an Athlete’s car would constitute a violation unless the Athlete establishes that someone else used the car; in that event, the Anti-Doping Organization must establish that, even though the Athlete did not have exclusive control over the car, the Athlete knew about the steroids and intended to have control over the steroids. Similarly, in the example of steroids found in a home medicine cabinet under the joint control of an Athlete and spouse, the Anti-Doping Organization must establish that the Athlete knew the steroids were in the cabinet and that the Athlete intended to exercise control over the steroids. The act of purchasing a Prohibited Substance alone constitutes Possession, even where, for example, the product does not arrive, is received by someone else, or is sent to a third party address.]
Prohibited List: The List identifying the Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods.
Prohibited Method: Any method so described on the Prohibited List.
Prohibited Substance: Any substance, or class of substances, so described on the Prohibited List.
Provisional Hearing: For purposes of DC 7.9, an expedited abbreviated hearing occurring prior to a hearing under DC 8 that provides the Athlete with notice and an opportunity to be heard in either written or oral form.
[Comment: A Provisional Hearing is only a preliminary proceeding which may not involve a full review of the facts of the case. Following a Provisional Hearing, the Athlete remains entitled to a subsequent full hearing on the merits of the case. By contrast, an “expedited hearing,” as that term is used in Article 7.9, is a full hearing on the merits conducted on an expedited time schedule.]
Provisional Suspension: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rules Violations above.
Publicly Disclose or Publicly Report: To disseminate or distribute information to the general public or persons beyond those persons entitled to earlier notification in accordance with DC 14.
Regional Anti-Doping Organization: A regional entity designated by member countries to coordinate and manage delegated areas of their national anti-doping programs, which may include the adoption and implementation of anti-doping rules, the planning and collection of Samples, the management of results, the review of TUEs, the conduct of hearings, and the conduct of educational programs at a regional level.
Registered Testing Pool: The pool of highest-priority Athletes established separately at the international level by International Federations and at the national level by National Anti-Doping Organizations, who are subject to focused In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing as part of that International Federation's or National Anti-Doping Organization's Test Distribution Plan and therefore are required to provide whereabouts information as provided in Article 5.6 of the Code and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.
Sample/Specimen: Any biological material collected for the purposes of Doping Control.
[Comment: It has sometimes been claimed that the collection of blood Samples violates the tenets of certain religious or cultural groups. It has been determined that there is no basis for any such claim.]

Signatories: Those entities signing the Code and agreeing to comply with the Code as provided in Article 23 of the Code.
Specified Substance: See DC 4.2.2.
Strict Liability: The rule which provides that under DC 2.1 and DC 2.2, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence, or knowing Use on the Athlete’s part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organization in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation.
Substantial Assistance: For purposes of DC 10.6.1, a Person providing Substantial Assistance must: (1) fully disclose in a signed written statement all information he or she possesses in relation to anti-doping rule violations, and (2) fully cooperate with the investigation and adjudication of any case related to that information, including, for example, presenting testimony at a hearing if requested to do so by an Anti-Doping Organization or hearing panel. Further, the information provided must be credible and must comprise an important part of any case which is initiated or, if no case is initiated, must have provided a sufficient basis on which a case could have been brought.
Tampering: Altering for an improper purpose or in an improper way; bringing improper influence to bear; interfering improperly; obstructing, misleading or engaging in any fraudulent conduct to alter results or prevent normal procedures from occurring.
Target Testing: Selection of specific Athletes for Testing based on criteria set forth in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.
Team Sport: A sport in which the substitution of Athletes is permitted during an Event.
Testing: The parts of the Doping Control process involving Test Distribution Planning, Sample collection, Sample handling, and Sample transport to the laboratory.
Trafficking: Selling, giving, transporting, sending, delivering or distributing (or Possessing for any such purpose) a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method (either physically or by any electronic or other means) by an Athlete, Athlete Support Personnel or any other Person subject to the jurisdiction of an Anti-Doping Organization to any third party; provided, however, this definition shall not include the actions of “bona fide” medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification, and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited Out-of-Competition unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.
TUE: Therapeutic Use Exemption, as described in DC 4.4.
UNESCO Convention: The International Convention against Doping in Sport adopted by the 33rd session of the UNESCO General Conference on 19 October 2005 including any and all amendments adopted by the States Parties to the Convention and the Conference of Parties to the International Convention against Doping in Sport.
Use: The utilisation, application, ingestion, injection or consumption by any means whatsoever of any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.
WADA: The World Anti-Doping Agency.