The Bureau consists of the President, the Honorary Secretary, the Honorary Treasurer, five Vice Presidents one from each of the five Continents (one of whom is the First Vice President), and 15 additional members. The Honorary Life President, the Immediate Past President, the Immediate Past First Vice President, the Immediate Past Honorary Secretary, and the Immediate Past Honorary Treasurer are also members of the Bureau with voice, but without vote. The Chairman of the Athletes Committee is a member of the FINA Bureau without vote.

From the 23 voting members of the Bureau, 16 are elected by the General Congress in accordance with the elections of their respective Continental Organisations and the following geographical representation: three from Africa, four from the Americas, four from Asia, four from Europe and one from Oceania. Another seven members are elected from the world at large, not exceeding one from Africa, one from Asia, one from Oceania, two from the Americas and two from Europe.

The General Congress elects from among these 23 members the President, the five Vice Presidents (including the First Vice President), and the Honorary Treasurer.

According to the FINA Constitution, the rights and duties of the Bureau shall include the following:

-    to discuss and make decisions on all matters assigned to them by the Congresses,
-    to interpret and enforce the FINA Rules,
-    to decide and take action on any matter pertaining to the affairs of FINA,
-    to submit proposals to the General Congress,
-    to decide on and publish administrative by-laws, including time and manner of payment of any financial obligations,
-    to decide on and publish regulations for FINA competitions,
-    to decide on FINA awards,
-    to make decisions in case of emergency,
-    to approve the title of international referee, starter, or judge on presentation of registered and certified candidates by the FINA Technical Committees,
-    to establish rules of order for the meetings of the General Congress, Technical Congress, Bureau, Committees, etc., provided that they will not be in opposition to the FINA Constitution,
-    to determine the dates and sites of World Championships and other FINA competitions and to organise and control all swimming, open water swimming, diving, high diving, water polo, and synchronised swimming competitions at the Olympic Games, World Championships, and other FINA competitions,
-    to appoint and instruct the FINA Committees in accordance with FINA Rule C 19 as well as to control their activities,
-    to appoint delegates to the Olympic Games, World Championships, other FINA competitions, and other international competitions. The Organising Committee must guarantee proper accreditation. The responsibilities of the delegates are to observe the organisation and to report back to the FINA Bureau, and
-    to appoint the FINA Executive Director on proposal of the FINA President. The FINA Executive Director shall attend all FINA meetings. The FINA Executive Director shall be an ex officio member of the Bureau without vote. The FINA Executive Director shall manage the FINA Office.

The FINA Bureau is not authorised to make any changes in the Constitution, General Rules, Technical Rules, Code of Ethics, Facilities Rules, Medical Rules and Doping Control Rules.