Diving entered the Olympics in 1904 in the third Games of the modern era with a men’s event won by American George Sheldon (p68), while women’s diving was included for the first time in 1912 when Sweden’s Greta Johansson (p61) won on the platform. Synchronised diving completed the Olympic diving family in 2000. The growth of the sport owes much to the promoting and development of diving at the FINA World Championships that began in 1973 in Belgrade. Events at that first Championship were restricted to the 3m springboard and 10m platform for men and women. The 1m springboard was introduced in 1991, while synchronised events off the 3m springboard and the 10m platform followed in 1998. Diving’s biennial World Cup was first contested in Woodlands, Texas, in 1979. The annual Grand Prix series followed in 1995, with a Super Final between 1998 and 2006. The newest event in the sport, the World Series, started in 2007.
Men’s platform/highboard: 1904
Men’s springboard and platform/highboard: 1908
Men’s springboard, platform and plain high diving; Women’s platform: 1912
Men’s 3m springboard, 10m platform and plain high diving; Women’s 3m springboard and 10m platform: 1920, 1924
Men and Women:3m springboard and 10m platform: 1928, 1932, 1936, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996
Men and Women: 3m springboard, 10m platform, synchronised 3m springboard and synchronised 10m platform: 2000, 2004, 2008.
Men and Women: 3m springboard and 10m platform: 1973, 1975, 1978, 1982, 1986
Men and Women: 1m springboard, 3m springboard and 10m platform 1991, 1994
Men and Women: 1m springboard, 3m springboard, 10m platform, synchronised 3m springboard, synchronised 10m platform: 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007.
Men and Women: 3m springboard and 10m platform: 1979, 1981, 1983, 1985, 1987
Men and Women: 1m springboard, 3m springboard and 10m platform: 1989, 1991, 1993
Men and Women: 1m springboard, 3m springboard, 10m platform, synchronised 3m springboard and synchronised 10m platform: 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008.
Grand Prix Series (with Super Final from 1998 to 2006):
Men and Women: 3m springboard and 10m platform: 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001
Men and Women: 3m springboard, 10m platform, synchronised 3m springboard and synchronised 10m platform: 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008.
Men and Women: 3m springboard, 10m platform, synchronised 3m springboard and synchronised 10m platform: 2007, 2008.
GUIDE TO DIVING
• Types of dive: Forward (diver starts facing the water and spins forwards in the air), Back (diver takes off with back to the water and spins backwards in the air), Reverse (diver faces forward, jumps upwards and outwards and rotates backwards towards the board; dives once known as “gainers”), Inward (diver starts with back to the water and spins towards the board, once known as “cutaways”), Twisting (any dive which includes twists), Armstand (dive which begins from a handstand position, used only in platform diving).
• Body positions: Straight, Pike (body bent at the waist, legs straight), Tuck (body bent at waist and knees, with thighs drawn to chest), Free (any combination of previous three positions).
• Judging: Dives are judged on approach, take-off, elevation, execution and entry.
• Scoring: Seven judges for individual events, nine for synchronised events. Scores range from 0 to 10 with half-point (0.5) increments. The two highest and two lowest scores are eliminated. The remaining scores are added and then multiplied by the degree of difficulty (DD) rating for the dive. In synchronised diving, two judges score one diver as an individual, two score the second diver as an individual and the remaining five score the synchronisation of the dive (how the pairs mirror height, distance from springboard or platform, speed of rotation and entry into the water). The highest and lowest of the four individual scores are eliminated and the highest and lowest scores for the synchronisation are eliminated. The two remaining individual scores are then added to the three remaining synchronisation scores. The five scores are then multiplied by 0.6 and that number is multiplied by the degree of difficulty.
• The modern structure of competition:
Olympic Games (2008): Individual 3m springboard and platform: Preliminary round – top 18 to semi-final; semi-final – top 12 to final. Synchronised 3m springboard and 10m platform: Eight pairs pre-qualify from previous World Championships and World Cup. Straight final.
World Championships (2007): 1m springboard: Preliminary round – top 12 to semi-finals; semi-finals (two
groups of six) – top three in each group to final.
3m springboard and 10m platform: Preliminary round – top 18 to semi-final; semi-final (one group) – top 12 to final. Synchronised 3m springboard and 10m platform: Preliminary round – top 12 pairs to final.
The pages of this section are extract from the FINA Centenary Book, by Craig Lord published in 2008 for the occasion of the 100 Years of FINA. If you are interessted in the historical backgroud of aquatic sports, you can acquire this book in our shop (>> GO TO SHOP )